NP3 outcomes related to RQ2

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RQ2 - Across subject domains what do teachers’ intended and enacted pedagogic practices indicate about their awareness of and the value accorded to pupils’ digital competencies, and how do pupils’ experience these pedagogic practices?

In order to establish the extent to which pedagogy (linked to ICT use) in primary schools aligned with children’s digital practices outside school, uses of ICT inside school were analysed against the Digital Practice Framework (DPF). This analysis showed that there were a small number of examples of pedagogic practices that did, or had the potential to, align with children’s digital practices outside school. These related to:

  • the use of school radio stations, where children became radio presenters
  • digital leaders programmes, where they went beyond carrying out routine tasks such as managing equipment
  • some uses of social media (such as class blogs), where teachers relinquished control
  • programming, for a small minority of children
  • and giving children control to decide, without having to ask permission, when and how to use mobile devices.

In almost all instances within the study schools the way in which ICT use was implemented meant that any potential alignment with children’s digital practise outside school was not achieved.

Children didn’t feel that their out of school digital practices were relevant in school (except in relation to homework, where they often had a greater degree of agency).

This lack of alignment between teachers’ pedagogical practices and children’s digital practices outside schools seems at least in part to be related to constraints that teachers have to work within (which are examined more closely in response to RQ3). Thus, for example, the purposes underpinning ICT use in school were almost always the school’s or teacher’s purposes rather than the children’s. In addition, children’s digital practices outside school developed over a prolonged period of time, and progressing from Marginal to Engaged on the Digital Practice Framework (DPF) involved sustained and increasing participation with others who shared similar interests. This was seldom the case in schools, where activities tended to be short term and isolated (even where intended to be linked by an overarching theme or topic).

See Section 7 of the meta-analysis report for a fuller discussion of the findings in relation to RQ2.

Despite this lack of alignment between teachers’ pedagogic practices with ICT and children’s digital practices outside school there were many examples of effective use of ICT in the study schools. A further analysis was carried out using the ICT Innovation Framework (an updated version of the Computer Practice Framework (Twining 2002a, 2002b, 2004, 2008)). Figure 11.3.1 provides an overview of the ICT Innovation Framework (ICTIF). Find out more about the ICTIF.

An overview of the ICT Innovation Framework (ICTIF)
ICT Innovation Framework 17-06-20.jpeg

This analysis of 159 observed or reported uses of ICT by children in the study schools revealed that:

  • there were large differences in the proportion of time that pupils spent using ICT both within and across the study schools (see Section 8.1)
  • there appeared to be a threshold level of ICT provision that was necessary in order for ICT to be used in ways that changed, or had the potential to change, what and/or how children were taught
  • of the 91 instances of observed or reported use of ICT in classes where ICT was estimated to be used by children more than 10% of the time:
    • 11 (13%) changed what and/or how the children were taught in ways that could not realistically have been achieved without ICT
    • a further 36 (40%) had the potential to change what and/or how children were taught in ways that could not realistically have been achieved without ICT, but either there was insufficient data to determine whether this had happened, or they were implemented in a way that undermined this transformative potential
  • of the total of 139 instances of ICT use that were categorised as pedagogic use of ICT across the curriculum (PICT on the Focus dimension of the ICTIF), which included instances where the quantity of use could not be estimated with any confidence:
    • just over 60% had the potential to change what and/or how children were taught in ways that could not realistically have been achieved without ICT
    • fewer than 20% did change what and/or how children were taught in ways that could not realistically have been achieved without ICT

See Section 8.2 of the meta-analysis report for examples of ICT use in the study schools that did, or had the potential to, change what and/or how the children were taught and could not realistically have been achieved without ICT.

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