Fluck et al (2012)
Fluck, A; Ranmuthugala, D; Chin, C. & Penesis, I. (2012) Calculus in elementary school: an example of ICT-based curriculum transformation. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 31(2), 159-174. Chesapeake, VA: AACE. http://www.editlib.org/noaccess/37572 (accessed 24-Jul-2012)
Integral calculus is generally regarded as a fundamental but advanced aspect of mathematics, and it is not generally studied until students are aged about fifteen or older. Understanding the transformative potential of information and communication technology, this project undertook an investigation in four Australian schools to train pupils aged ten to twelve years how to solve problems using integral calculus with computer algebra system software. After eleven lessons the students completed a test constructed from items at the level of a first year engineering degree calculus examination. The average achievement was at the credit level, and students showed good understanding of the applications of integral calculus.